Accessibility Page Navigation
Style sheets must be enabled to view this page as it was intended.
The Royal College of Psychiatrists Improving the lives of people with mental illness

General overviews

  • Brown R.P., Gerbarg P.L., Muskin P.R. (2009) How to use herbs, nutrients & yoga in mental health care. New York, London: WW Norton Company.
  • Eisenberg, D.M., Kessler, R.C., Foster, C. et al (1993). Unconventional medicine in the United States. Prevalence, costs and pattern of use. N Engl J Med, 328, 246-252.
  • Ernst, E., Schmidt, K. (2004) Alternative' cures for depression--how safe are web sites? Psychiatry Res, 129, 297-301.
  • Freeman, M.P., Hibblen, J.R., Wisner, K.L., et al (2006). Omega-3 fatty acids: evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry.Jounral of Clinical Psychiatry, 67, 1954-1967.
  • Fugh-Berman, A. (2000) Herb-drug interactions. Lancet, 355,134-138.
  • Heck, A.M., DeWitt, B.A. & Lukes, A.L. (2000). Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm,  57, 1221-1227.
  • Klepser, T.B. &  Klepser, M.E. (1999). Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies. Am J Health Syst Pharm, 56, 125-138.
  • Natural medicines comprehensive database
  • Miller, L.G. (1989). Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Arch Intern Med, 158, 2200-2211.
  • Werneke, U. Complementary Medicine in Psychiatry, Evidence Based Mental Health, 12, 1-4, 2009.
  • Werneke, U., Turner, T. & Priebe, S. (2006). Complementary alternative medicine in psychiatry: a review of effectiveness and safety. British Jounral of Psychiatry, 188, 109-121.
  • Werneke, U., Ladenheim, D., McCarthy, T. (2004). Complementary alternative medicine for cancer: a review of effectiveness and safety. Cancer-Therapy,  475-500.

Improving brain function and dementia

  • Birks, J. & Grimley Evans, J. Gingko Biloba for Cognitive Impairment and Dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD003120. DOI: 10.1002/14651858. CD003120. Pub3.
  • Bjelakovic, G., Nikolovba, D., Gluud L.L., Sominetti, R.G., Gluud, C. (2007) Mortality in Randomized Trials od Antioxidant Supplements for Primary and Secondary Prevention: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, JAMA, 297, 842-857.
  • McDonald, R.J. (1979) Hydergine: a review of 26 clinical studies. Pharmakopsychiatr Neuropsychopharmakol, 12, 407-22.
  • Olin, J., Schneider, L., Novit, A. et al (2003) Hydergine for dementia (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Tabet, N., Birks, J., Grimley Evans, J.  (2004) Vitamin E for Alzheimer's disease. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Vogeler, B.K., Pittler, M.H., Ernst, E. (1999) The efficacy of ginseng. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. European Jounral of Clinical Pharmacology, 55, 567-575.
  • No author listed (2008). Haemorrhage due to Gingki Biloba. Prescrire Int, 93,19.

Anxiety and sleep problems

  • Bent, S. Padula, A., Patterson, M.,
  • Mehling, W. (2006) Valerian for Sleep: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Am J Med, 119, 1005-1012.
  • Bystritsky, A,, Kerwin, L., Feusner, J.D. (2008) A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). J Altern Complement Med, 14, 175-180.
  • Diaper, A., Hindmarch, I. (2004). A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of two doses of a valerian preparation on the sleep, cognitive and psychomotor function of sleep-disturbed older adults. Phytother Res, 18, 831-836.

Movement disorder

  • Dorn, M. (2000). Efficacy and tolerabilityof Baldrian versus Oxazepam in non-organic and non-psychiatric insomniacs: a randomized, double blind, clinical comparative study. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilk, 7, 79-84.
  • Ernst, E. (2006). Herbal remedies for anxiety - a systematic review of controlled clinical trials.Phytomedicine, 13, 205-208.
  • Ernst, E. (2002). "Flower remedies": a systematic review of the clinical evidence. Wien Klin Wochenschr, 30, 963-966.
  • Herxheimer, A. & Petrie, K.J. (2003). Melatonin for the prevention and treatment of jet lag (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
  • MacMahon, K.M.A., Broomfield, N.M., Espie, C.A. (2005). A systematic review of the effectiveness of oral melatonin for adults (18 to 65 years) with delayed sleep phase syndrome and adults (18 to 65 years) with primary insomnia. Current Psych Rev, 1, 103-113.
  • Schulman S.P., Becker L.C., Kass D.A., Champion H.C., Terrin M.L., Forman S., Ernst K.V., Kelemen M.D., Townsend S.N., Capriotti A., Hare J.M., Gerstenblith G. (2006) L-arginine therapy in acute myocardial infarction: the Vascular Interaction with Age in Myocardial Infarction (VINTAGE MI) randomized control trial. JAMA, 295, 58-64.
  • Stevinson, C. & Ernst, E. (2000). Valerian for insomnia: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Sleep Medicine, 1, 91-99.
  • Taibi, D.M., Landis, C.A., Petry, H. & Vitiello, M.V. (2007) A systematic review of Valerian as a Sleep Aid: Safe but not Effective. Sleep Med. Rev., 11, 209-320.
  • Ziegler, G., Ploch, M., Miettinen-Baumann, A. (2002). Efficacy and tolerability of valerian extract LI 156 compared with oxazepam in the treatment of non-organic insomnia--a randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical study. Eur J Med Res, 25, 480-486.

Depression and bipolar affective disorder

  • Bressa, G.M. (1994). S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAME) as antidepressant: meta-analysis of clinical studies. Acta Neurol Scand, 154, (Suppl.), 7-14.
  • Committee of Safety in Medicine & Medicines Control Agency (2000). Reminder: St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) interactions. Current problems in pharmacovigilance, 26, 6-7.
  • Freeman, M.P., Fava, M., Lake, J., Trivedi, M.H., Wisner, K.L., Mischoulon, D. (2010) Complementary and alternative medicine in major depressive disorder: the American Psychiatric Association Task Force report. J Clin Psychiatry, 71, 669-681.
  • Freeman, M.P., Hibbeln, J.R., Wisner, K.L., Davis, J.M., Mischoulon, D.. Peet, M. et al (2006) Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Evidence basis for treatment and future research in psychiatry. J.Clin. Psychiatry, 67, 1954-1967.
  • Knuppel, L., Linde, K. (2004). Adverse effects of St. John's Wort: a systematic review. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,65,1470-1479.
  • Lespérance, F., Frasure-Smith, N., St-André, E., Turecki, G., Lespérance, P., Wisniewski, S.R.(2010) The efficacy of omega-3 supplementation for major depression: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry, Jun 15. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Linde, K., Berner, M., Egger, M. et al (2005). St John's wort for depression: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 99-107.
  • Linde, K., Ramirez, G., Mulrow, C.D. et al (1996). St John’s wort for depression-an overview and meta-analysis of the randomised clinical trials. British Medical Journal, 313, 253-258.
  • Montgomery, P. & Richardson, A.J. (2008) Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Bipolar Disorder. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 2. Art.No. CD005169. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD005169.PUB 2.
  • Parker G, Brotchie H (2011) 'D' for depression: any role for vitamin D? Food for Thought II. Acta Psychiatr Scand;124:243-249.
  • Szegedi, A., Kohnen, R. Dienel, a. et al (2005). Acute treatment of moderate to severe depression with hypericum extract WS5570 (St John’s wort): randomised controlled double blind non-inferiority trial against paroxetine. Brisitsh Medical Journal, 330, 503-506.
  • Taylor, M.J., Carney, S., Geddes, J. et al (2004). Folate for depressive disorders.
    (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Thachil, A.F., Mohan, R., Bugra, D. (2007). The evidence base of complementary and alternative therapies in depression.Journal of Affective Disorders, 97, 23-35. 
  • Werneke, U., Horn, O., Taylor, D. (2004b). How effective is St John’s wort? – The evidence revisited. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 611-617.
  • Whiskey, E., Werneke, U., Taylor, D. (2001). A systematic review of hypericum perforatum in depression. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16, 239-252.

Psychotic states

  • Joy, C.B., Mumby-Croft, R., Joy, L.A. (2003). Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for schizophrenia (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Movement disorders

  • Bhidayasiri R, Fahn S, Weiner WJ, Gronseth GS, Sullivan KL, Zesiewicz TA: American Academy of Neurology (2013) Evidence-based guideline: treatment of tardive syndromes: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology;81: 463-469.
  • Shamir, E., Barak, Y., Shalman, I. (2001). Melatonin treatment for tardive dyskinesia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 58, 1049-1052.
  • Shamir, E., Barak, Y., Plopsky, I. et al (2000). Is melatonin treatment effective for tardive dyskinesia? Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61, 556-8.
  • Soares, K.V.S. & McGrath, J.J. (2003). Vitamin E for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Zhang, W.F., Tan, Y.L., Zhang, X.Y., Chan, R.C., Wu, H.R., Zhou, D.F. (2010) Extract of ginkgo biloba treatment for tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry, Sep 21. [Epub ahead of print]


  • Overstreet, D.H., Keung, W.M., Rezvani, A.H. et al (2003). Herbal remedies for alcoholism: promises and possible pitfalls. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 27, 177-185.
  • My Eboga 2007.
  • Vastag, B. (2005). Addiction research. Ibogaine therapy: a 'vast, uncontrolled experiment'. Science, 308, 345-346.

January 2014

Login - Members Area

If you don't have an account please Click here to Register

Make a Donation

More mental health topics